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Goji berry polysaccharide

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Author : Joe Huang
Update time : 2021-12-30 09:44:44
                                                                                                                     Goji berry polysaccharide
Goji berry polysaccharide is actually the extract of Goji berry, which belongs to one of the most valuable ingredients in theGoji berry pulp.The essence of Goji berry polysaccharide lies in that the polysaccharide is a very complex and huge molecular structure, which belongs to the water-soluble polysaccharide.
The extraction and purification of Goji berry polysaccharides are divided into two steps.One is the extraction of Goji berry crude polysaccharide, and the other is the graded purification of Goji berry polysaccharide.
 
Biological activity
Antioxidant and anti-aging
The accumulation of oxidative stress will promote the aging process, and anti-aging experiments use free radicals as toxin carrier.The antioxidant function of Goji berry polysaccharides has been demonstrated in numerous in vitro experiments, it has been reported that Goji berry polysaccharides show antioxidant capacity in vitro, such as the inhibition of 1,1-diphenyl-2-hydrazine (DPPH) free radicals, significant reduction capacity, superoxide clearance, inhibition of  peroxide radical-mediated erythrocyte hemolysis and iron ion chelation.With 60Co ray irradiation of rat liver microsome suspension or microsomal suspension with medlar polysaccharide, the results show that medlar polysaccharide can inhibit the loss of sulfhydrol protein caused by radiation, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase inactivation, and has a dose-response relationship, its effect is better than vitamin E. Most of the Goji berry polysaccharide for Goji berry by fat, water, alcohol sink the total polysaccharide extract, Luo Qiong reported in 200, the Goji berry water extract in vitro antioxidant activity is higher than water lift, alcohol heavy crude polysaccharide, and the latter is higher than the DEAE cellulose column purification of Goji berry polysaccharide X antioxidant capacity, crude Goji berry polysaccharide mixture containing carotenoids, riboflavin, ascorbate, thiamine and niacin may also participate in the antioxidant reaction.Recently, Taiwanese scholars were proteollysed and separated by DEAE agarose CL-6B column, The four components included neutral polysaccharides (, medlar polysaccharide N) and three acidic polysaccharides, The antioxidant activities of four fractions and aqueous extract (CE), crude polysaccharide (CP), deproteinoglycan (DP), deprotein and dialyszed polysaccharide (DDP) were compared, The results showed that DDP except CE had cleared DPPH radicals, 2, 2-Secondary azo-2- (3- -ethyl-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radicals.
 
Immunoregulation
Goji berry polysaccharide affects the immunomodulatory function in various ways.Further isolation and purification of the crude polysaccharide by ion exchange chromatography yielded a proteoglycan complex, medlar polysaccharide 3p, which is immunostimulatory.Medlar polysaccharide 3p increases the expression of IL-2 and TNF in human peripheral blood monocytes, and both mRNA and protein levels were dose-related with Goji berry polysaccharide, suggesting enhanced immune and potential antitumor effects.Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide 3p can inhibit the growth of transplanted S180 sarcoma, increase the phage capacity of macrophages, proliferation of spleen macrophages and antibody secretion of splenocytes, viability of damaged T macrophages, IL2mRNA expression, and reduce lipid peroxidation.One study has demonstrated that medlar polysaccharide can regulate the phenotype and functional maturation of mouse bone marrow dendritic cells, important antigen-presenting cells in vivo that have an important role in initiating the primary immune response.
 
Antineoplastic
Goji berry polysaccharide can inhibit the growth of a variety of tumors, and its mechanism of action is different. It is believed that medlar polysaccharide can achieve anti-tumor purpose in the body by activating the immune system, but its tumor suppression effect still lacks reliable evidence.Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide 3p significantly inhibited the growth of S180 sarcoma by increasing immunity and reducing lipid peroxidation, there are data that the anti-tumor effect of Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide is related to regulating calcium concentration, such as the human liver cancer QGY7703 cell strain showed that medlar polysaccharide can inhibit QGY7703 cell proliferation and induce its apoptosis in the S phase of division cycle, cellular RNA and calcium concentration rise, but also change the distribution of cellular calcium.Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide can inhibit the growth of prostate cancer PC3 and DU145 cell lines, and has a dose and time response relationship, causing DNA breaks in cancer cells, and inducing apoptosis by Bcl2 and Bax protein expression. In vivo experiments show that it can inhibit the growth of PC3 tumors in nude mice.It has also been found that Chinese Goji berry water extract can promote the apoptosis of liver cancer cells.
 
Adjust blood lipid and reduce blood sugar
Wu et al. found that medlar polysaccharide can reduce the content of MDA and nitric oxide in the blood glucose and serum of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) rats, and significantly increase the SOD content in the serum, and reduce the DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes.Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide reduces the levels of blood glucose and blood lipids in diabetic rabbits and in high-fat feed-fed rats.20~50mgkg-1 has a protective liver and kidney tissue in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, showing that it is a good deglycemic substance.
 
Radioresistance
Medlar polysaccharide can promote the recovery of peripheral blood images in mice caused by X-ray and carboplatin chemotherapy, can stimulate recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF); ray can cause membrane damage to mouse hepatocyte mitochondria, and Goji berry polysaccharide can reduce this damage, significantly improve the loss of mitochondrial mercapol protein and inactivation of SOD, catalase, GSHPx, and its radiation resistance function is more obvious than tocopherol.
 
Neuroprotection
Studies by Yu et al from the University of Hong Kong found that Goji berry extracts can be neuroprotective against ER stress levels in nerve cells, and that Goji berry polysaccharide has a protective effect on neurotoxicity caused by amyloid peptides.Amyloid peptide is one of the factors promoting neuronal loss in the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease. Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide can prevent the apoptosis of c-junk amino-terminal kinase (JNK) by reducing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and reduce its phosphorylation, and reduce RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) phosphorylation, and may play a certain role in the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease.
 
Human aging is mainly caused by cell oxidation. Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide can directly remove hydroxyl radicals in vitro and can inhibit spontaneous or lipid peroxidation reactions caused by hydroxyl radicals.Perfusion of medlar polysaccharide can improve the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in D primary galactose-induced aging mice, which can remove excessive free radicals and play a role in delaying aging. J.
 
Antitumous effect
The biological effect of Goji berry on cancer cells was observed in vitro, which proved that Goji berry had obvious inhibitory effect on human gastric adenocarcinoma KATO-I cells and human cervical cancer Hela cells.The treatment of 20 cases of primary liver cancer shows that it can improve symptoms and immune dysfunction and prolong survival.Chinese Goji berry polysaccharide regulates the antitumor activity of mouse LAK cells.